LONG NON-CODING RNAS – «TUNING FORK» IN REGULATION OF CELL PROCESSES
V. V. Gordiyuk
Most of RNA transcripts, instead of serving templates for protein synthesis, perform different functions such as control of embryogenesis, differentiation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, immune response, and stress reactions. A large portion of these RNAs are denoted as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which function as signaling molecules, navigating systems and platforms for ribonucleic complexes assembly. They also participate in the organization of specific cellular domains. Moreover, they are able to bind regulatory proteins and micro-RNAs, and serve as precursors for small RNAs. It was shown that lncRNAs participate in transcription regulation; they are also involved in alternative splicing, RNA editing, traffic, translation and degradation of RNA. The three-dimensional structure of lncRNAs plays a crucial role in processes of chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. In this review we discuss various aspects of lncRNAs functioning.
Key words: long non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes, chromatin remodeling, alternative splicing, RNA editing, micro-RNA, ESC.
The original article in Russian is available for download in PDF format.
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