V. I. Morozov1, G. A. Sakuta2, M. I. Kalinski3
The role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in regulation of cellular functions and cell protection is reviewed. S1P, along with other sphingolipid metabolites, is believed to act as an intracellular second messenger and as an extracellular mediator molecule. S1P chemistry, production and metabolism are described. Cellular receptors for S1P and their tissue specificity are described. Platelets and erythrocytes have a crucial significance in blood transport of S1P. Hypoxic conditions induce an increase in S1P, which initiates a set of cytoprotective events via its cellular receptors. S1P involvement in regulation of cell migration, myogenesis, control of skeletal muscle function is described. It is shown that S1P balance disturbances may mediate pathological state. S1P system implication in regulation of the most important cellular functions allows considering it as a prospective remedial target.
Key words: sphingosine-1-phosphate, receptors, distribution, metabolism, cellular functions regulation, cellular protection.
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