MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF CIRCADIAN CLOCK FUNCTIONING
1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv;
2Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Most physiological processes of all organisms are rhythmic with a period of about 24 h and are generated by an endogenous biological CLOCK present in all cells. However, there is also a central CLOCK – the primary circadian pacemaker which is localized in the supraсhiasmatic nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. Factors of groups Period (PER1, PER2 and PER3), BMAL (BMAL1 and BMAL2), CRYptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) as well as some other factors are the components of this circadian CLOCK system. Some of these genes contain E-box sequences and their expression is regulated by a transcription factor complex CLOCK-BMAL1. The enzymes responsible for the post-translational modification of circadian gene products are also the components of circadian CLOCK system. These enzymes define CLOCK’s work and determine the duration of circadian biorhythm and functional state of the whole organism. The most important of these enzymes are casein kinase-1? and -1?. We have analysed data about the interconnection between the circadian CLOCK system, cell cycle, and cancerogenesis as well as about the sensitivity of circadian gene expression to the action of toxic agents and nanomaterials.
Key words: circadian CLOCK, genes, PER1, PER2, CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, casein kinase-1?.
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