A. A. Kaberniuk, O. S. Oliinyk, D. V. Kolibo, S. V. Komisarenko
Development of complications during diphtheria depends to a large extent on toxin-neutralizing antibodies level in the patient’s blood. Active immunization of people with diphtheria anatoxin is widely used for diphtheria prevention and passive immunization with hyperimmune antitoxic horse serum is used for diphtheria treatment. A traditional component of anti-diphtheria vaccines?– diphtheria anatoxin has a number of serious disadvantages, which are mainly associated with complicated procedure of its production. Thus, the search for new antigen substances, which can effectively stimulate protective humoral response to diphtheria toxin, is an urgent task in anti-diphtheria vaccine development. Furthermore, one of the most important objects is the development of new in vitro methods for estimation of diphtheria toxin-neutralizing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, which allow to avoid using active diphtheria toxin and toxin-sensitive laboratory animals.
Comparative studies of toxin-neutralizing antibodies induction after immunization of laboratory animals with recombinant subunits A and B of diphtheria toxin were carried out. The new method for detection of protective antibodies in serum was proposed. This method is based on the ToBI test (Toxin Binding Inhibition test); namely on the property of anti-diphtheria antibodies to inhibit the biding of toxin subunit B fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the sensitive to diphtheria toxin Vero cells. The ability of subunit B to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) was confirmed by the intradermal test, which is traditionally used to detect protective antitoxic antibodies in the serum, and by flow cytometry method, developed for this purpose.
The results suggest that diphtheria toxin recombinant subunit B may be used for the induction of the protective immune response. The new developed approach for estimation diphtheria toxin-neutralizing antibodies is more ethical and safe and can substitute successfully the traditional methods.
Key words: diphtheria, toxin-neutralazing antibodies, flow cytometry, protective immunity, diphtheria toxin recombinant subunits, fluorescent probe, method for detection of protective antibodies.
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