А. S. Tarasenko, M. V. Linetska, L. G. Storchak, N. H. Himmelreich
Neuronal activity is tightly coupled with brain energy metabolism. Numerous studies have proved that glucose is not a sole energy substrate for neurons; metabolic monocarboxylate intermediates derived from glucose (pyruvate and lactate) released by astrocytes are shown to be taken up and oxidized by neurons, and, moreover, could serve as neuroprotective agents. Herein, we presented the data that extracellular pyruvate (4 mM) in the presence of glucose caused the increase in synaptosomal ATP content from 3.48±0.30 to 4.38±0.23 nmol/mg of protein. This correlates with the enhanced accumulation of fluorescent dye acridine orange in the available and the recycling synaptic vesicles within the synaptosomes reflecting the improved generation of proton gradient through the synaptic vesicle membrane. We have also demonstrated the effect of extracellular pyruvate on distribution of [3H]GABA between synaptic vesicles and cytoplasm in loaded synaptosomes. To estimate [3H]GABA accumulation into the synaptic vesicles, Ca2+-dependent 4-aminopyridine-triggered exocytotic neurotransmitter release was studied. Evaluation of cytosolic [3H]GABA pool was performed by measuring the Ca2+-independent transporter-mediated neurotransmitter release evoked by nipecotic acid or high K+. The presence of pyruvate resulted in doubled exocytotic release of [3H]GABA, and significantly attenuated Ca2+-independent release of cytosolic [3H]GABA. Together, these observations provide insight into the important role of glucose metabolic intermediate, pyruvate, in sustaining activity of vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter and so normal inhibitory transmission. We propose to use pyruvate for keeping up synaptosomal preparations in state of metabolic stability.
Key words: GABA, synaptosomes, pyruvate, acridine orange, 4-aminopyridine, exocytosis, transporter-mediated release.
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